The Effect of Cell Phone Usage on Semen Quality and Fertility Among Jordanian Males, Middle East Fertility Society Journal (2017); Nahla Al-Bayyari

Time using wireless phones was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with abnormal sperm morphology. Distance from telecommunication towers was also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with low sperm volume. Furthermore, time spent sending and receiving text messages was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with low sperm count, and time carrying a mobile phone the pant pocket was significantly associated with decreasing sperm motility.

Cell Phone Alters Oxidative Stress and Impairs Testicular Function of Male Wistar Rats, Journal of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility (2017); Oyewopo, Olaniyi, Oyewopo, and Jimoh

This study was designed to investigate the effects of Radiofrequency-Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) from mobile phones on the testes. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly selected and exposed to RF-EMR from a Nokia 105 for 28 days. Histomorphometry and biochemical investigations were carried out. The microscopic examinations of spermatozoa showed low sperm count, altered sperm morphology and progressivity in the experimental groups. Also, histomorphometric parameters showed altered cross section͕ lumen and germinal epithelia diameter in all the experimental groups, and sera levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase, which are markers of reactive oxygen species significantly increased and decreased respectively in all the experimental groups compared to control group. In addition͕ sera levels of male sex hormones (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone) significantly decreased (p<0.05) in 1H- and 2H- exposure groups compared to the control group. The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to RFEMR from cell phone causes oxidative stress and impairs testicular function that is accompanied by decreased sex hormone profile.

The Effect of Smartphone's Radiation Frequency and Exposure Duration on NADPH Oxidase 5 (NOX5) Level in Sperm Parameters, Sains Malaysiana (2017); Norazurashima Jamaludin, Syawal Shafie Abdul Razak, Farah Hanan, Fathihah Jaffar, Siti Fatimah Ibrahim, Khairul Osman

Health hazard through smart phone radiation has been associated with male infertility. The suspected prime mediator is the NOX5 enzyme. When activated, the additional pathway for free radical production will damage sperm's DNA. However, conclusive evidence is still lacking. Thus, this study was conducted to comprehend the detrimental effect of the radiation towards sperm parameters by using rat as a model. Parameters measured include sperm concentration, viability, DNA damage status and NOX5 level on sperm. This study consisted of two phases. The first phase was conducted to determine the optimal radiation frequency emitted from the smart phone. The radiation frequencies that were evaluated were 0 MHz (control), 4200 MHz without multiple connection mode (minimum frequency) and 9700 MHZ with multiple connection modes (maximum frequency). Each exposure setting represented one group. Each group consisted of eight rats, which received exposure for six hours/day for two consecutive weeks. All parameters measured showed significant differences following four hours of exposure. In conclusion, although smart phones emit low frequency microwaves, they can decrease sperm concentration and viability, and increase DNA damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. NOX5 pathway has been proven to be the likely pathway of ROS induced RF-EMW. 

Quantitative Changes in Testicular Structure and Function in Rats Exposed to Mobile Phone Radiation, Andrologia (2017); Murat Cetkin, Nese Kizilkan, C. Demirel,  H. Erbağcı, and S. Erkılıç

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic frequencies (EMF) emitted from mobile phones on rat testis morphology and histopathology using stereological techniques. We also investigated cortisol, testosterone, FSH and LH levels. Morphometric measurements were made with the help of a computer-assisted stereological analysis system on male Wistar rats. The testis weight and volume were significantly lower in the EMF exposed groups. The mean volume fraction of interstitial tissue was higher, but the volume fraction of tubular tissue was lower in the EMF-exposed groups. The mean tubular and germinal tissue volume, seminiferous tubule diameter and germinal epithelium height were also lower in EMF exposed groups. The cortisol levels in the EMF-exposed groups were significantly higher. In conclusion, EMF from mobile phones caused morphologic and histological changes by the affecting germinal epithelium tissue negatively.

1950MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2017); Yan-Yun Lin, Tao Wu, Jun-Ye Liu, Peng Gao, Kang-Chu Li, Qi-Yan Guo, Meng Yuan, Hai-Yang Lang, Li-Hua Zeng,  and Guo-Zhen Guo

This study explored the effects of 1950 MHz RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on mouse Leydig (TM3) cells. TM3 cells were irradiated or sham-irradiated continuously for five days. After 24 hours, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, secretion capacity of testosterone, and P450scc mRNA levels were all reduced in the irradiated group. The results indicate that EMR exposure at 1950 MHz could cause adverse effects on TM3 cells proliferation and testosterone secretion.

Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR, 900 MHz) Induced DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest in Testicular Germ Cells in Swiss Albino Mice, Toxicology and Industrial Health (2016), Pandey, Giri, Das, Upadhaya; Molecular Cytogenetic Laboratory, Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India

In view of a widespread and extensive use of mobile phones, this study evaluates alterations in male germ cell transformation kinetics following RFR exposure and after recovery. Swiss albino mice were exposed to RFR (900 MHz) for durations of four and eight hours per day for 35 days. RFR exposure caused depolarization of mitochondrial membranes resulting in destabilized cellular redox homeostasis. Statistically significant increases in the damage index in germ cells and sperm head defects were also noted. Flow cytometric estimation of germ cell subtypes revealed 2.5-fold increases in spermatogonial populations with significant decreases in spermatids. Almost fourfold reduction in spermatogonia to spermatid turnover (1C:2C) and three times reduction in primary spermatocyte to spermatid turnover (1C:4C) was found, indicating arrest in the premeiotic stage of spermatogenesis, which resulted in loss of post-meiotic germ cells apparent from testis histology and low sperm counts. Histological alterations such as sloughing of immature germ cells into the seminiferous tubule lumen, epithelium depletion and maturation arrest were also observed. However, all these changes showed recovery following the post-exposure period indicating that the adverse effects of RFR although detrimental, are reversible. To conclude, RFR exposure-induced oxidative stress causes DNA damage in germ cells, which alters cell cycle progression leading to low sperm count.

Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China, Environment International (2016); Zhang G, Yan H, Chen Q, Liu K, Ling X, Sun L, Zhou N, Wang Z, Zou P, Wang X, Tan L, Cui Z, Zhou Z, Liu J, Ao L, Cao

To investigate effects of cell phone use on semen parameters in a general population, we screened and documented the cell phone use of 794 male college students. Internet use via cellular networks was associated with decreased sperm concentration, total sperm counts, and decreased semen volume. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders, and significant negative associations between internet use and semen parameters remained. Our results showed that certain aspects of cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality and impair male fertility.

The Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Sperm Function, Reproduction (2016); Houston BJ, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis GN, Aitken RJ

We explored the documented impacts of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system and considered any common observations that could provide insights on a potential mechanism. Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) documented elevated levels, and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage due to RF-EMR exposure. In light of this, we envisage a two-step mechanism whereby RF-EMR is able to induce mitochondrial dysfunction leading to elevated ROS production.

Comparison of the Genotoxic Effects Induced by 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in GC-2 Cells, Radiation Research: Official Journal of the Radiation Research Society (2015); Duan W, Liu C, Zhang L, He M, Xu S, Chen C, Pi H, Gao P, Zhang Y, Zhong M, Yu Z, Zhou Z

To make experiments controllable and results comparable, we standardized exposure conditions and explored the potential genotoxicity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF and 1800 MHz RF-EMF. A mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was intermittently (5 min on and 10 min off) exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF. We found that ELF-EMF exposure resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks at 3. We also observed that RF-EMF exposure significantly induced oxidative DNA base damage. Our results suggest that both ELF-EMF and RF-EMF under the same experimental conditions may produce genotoxicity, but create different patterns of DNA damage.